| Login | Crie o seu Jornal Online FREE!

PRAVDA NEWS
Desde: 06/02/2012      Publicadas: 26694      Atualização: 05/01/2020

Capa |  INTERNACIONAL  |  islam  |  Parana  |  Portugal  |  São Paulo


 INTERNACIONAL

  03/02/2013
  0 comentário(s)


General Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, dictator of Paraguay, died on August 16th, aged 93

General Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, dictator of Paraguay, died on August 16th, aged 93





NOT only Africa has a heart of darkness. South America has one too, squeezed in the tight embrace of Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Two great rivers, the Paraguay and the Paraná, flow through Paraguay and past it, but travellers have little reason to come to this empty, landlocked place. The dry western chaco has no gold or oil, though wars were fought on the supposition it did; the east is more fertile, but still poor. The people are mostly Indian farmers, the army dangerously unpredictable. It is good ground for dictators.

For 35 years, from 1954 to 1989, Alfredo Stroessner ruled there. Under him, although he brought electrification, asphalt roads and friendship with America, the place became yet more isolated and benighted. The economy was based on contraband: whisky, cigarettes, passports, coffee, cocaine, luxury cars, rare bird skins, anything, until the unofficial value of Paraguay's exports was said to be three times the official figure. The style of government was a spoils system, underpinned by terror of a vicious network of spies and secret police. Foreign policy was a buddies' brigade with other dictators"Videla of Argentina, Pinochet of Chile"to co-ordinate counter-terrorism and assassinations. And the most .famous tourist was Josef Mengele, the fugitive doctor of Auschwitz, riding into a village in the Paraguayan wilderness to be welcomed and protected.

General Stroessner himself was not seen much. His blue-eyed portrait, in white uniform with gold braid and multiple medals, stared down from walls in offices and private houses alike; but he was stocky and dull, the typical son of a German immigrant brewer, and preferred desk-duties to speeches and parades. He would work, breaking only for siesta, from six in the morning until nine at night. Much of his day was spent, like some Roman emperor, receiving the petitions of the long lines of ordinary citizens who filed towards his inner sanctum. He did not give interviews to the press, having no wish to reveal himself. A single conversation, with Isabel Hilton of Granta when he had just begun his long exile in Brasilia in 1989, is almost all obituarists have to go on. In this he prided himself especially on bringing Paraguay peace. He had avoided "negative political movements", imposing stability and order. As he said the word, orden, he rolled it sensuously round his mouth. But it had a different meaning for him: the political opponent "disappearing" in a bricked-up cell, the newspaper ABC Color closed down for five years, or the "communist" agitator (he saw such phantoms everywhere, they unloosed American aid) silenced by near-drowning in a bath of dirty water. He told Ms Hilton there had been no torture. But five tonnes of secret-police files turned up three years later, stacked from floor to ceiling of a police station in suburban Asunción, to give the lie to that.


A party of his own

His main machine of power was not the army. Although he was a distinguished soldier, rising to brigadier-general by the age of 36, and indeed had done nothing else in life since he was 17, he did not trust military men. He himself had skilfully ridden the divisions in the army to seize power from a civilian president in 1954. His policy was to keep the officers sweet with a cut from the smuggling revenues or a share of the contracts for his grandest project, the Itaipu hydroelectric plant built with Brazil on the Paraná. Some cronies amassed fortunes. General Andrés Rodríguez, who eventually overthrew him in what he contemptuously called a cuartelazo, or barracks revolt, built himself a replica of the Palace of Versailles.

As a firmer, more loyal base than these soldiers, General Stroessner used the Colorado ("Red") party, a right-wing body that became steadily more so as its moderate politicians were ejected. Membership of the party was compulsory for all teachers, doctors, engineers, officers or those who hoped for government service. In a population of 3.8m, 900,000 belonged to it, their party dues docked from their salaries. Every four years, in a conspicuous show of phoney democracy, General Stroessner stood as the Colorado candidate and was elected, sometimes"as his supporters joked"with more than 100% of the vote. He won eight straight elections, and the constitutional bar to three consecutive terms or more was quietly set aside.

There was some resistance. The Catholic church got restive, especially when the general ignored calls for land reform from the indigenous poor. The Americans, fed up at last with his wiliness and his human-rights abuses, began to part company with him in the late 1970s. Paraguayans as a whole, however, were much slower to be disillusioned. It was true that he treated the country as his fief, to the point of picking out teenage girls for himself when he presented school diplomas; but he paid for the girls, set them up in houses, and gave their relatives money. You could argue that the Itaipu project left Paraguay with only 2% of the energy and 15% of the contracts; but that 15% had given the country, for eight years in the 1970s, the highest rate of growth in Latin America. General Stroessner was a master-dispenser of illegal spoils. Yet the dark truth of his Paraguay was that he co-opted even his opponents into that system with him.



  Mais notícias da seção Cidades no caderno INTERNACIONAL
30/05/2019 - Cidades - DONALD TRUMP
ACERCAMIENTOS A NORUEGA LE HAN HECHO DAÑO AL PROCESO LIBERTARIO EN VENEZUELA, NO MAS DIALOGO...
23/03/2018 - Cidades - Lula rejeitou acordo para desistir de candidatura e ser solto
No lançamento da candidatura de Lula, Fernando Haddad, coordenador do programa de governo do PT, disse que o ex-presidente foi sondado e rejeitou o acordo: se desistisse de candidatura, seria solto...
24/01/2018 - Cidades - Corte Penal de La Haya investigue al gobierno venezolano por crímenes de Lesa Humanidad.
Se organizó y ordenó desde la jefatura del estado, la persecución, hostigamiento, encarcelamiento y asesinato sistemático de manifestantes opositores y dirigentes políticos, así como actos de represalia y escarmiento a la población civil....
06/01/2018 - Cidades - Alitas de pollo con miel y limón
Alitas de pollo con miel y limón...
01/01/2018 - Cidades - Venezuela bate el récord mundial de inflación
Venezuela se despide de 2017 batiendo un escalofriante récord. El de mayor inflación mundial, que una consultor a financiera del país, Ecoanalítica, ha estimado nada más y nada menos que en un 2735 por ciento....
02/12/2017 - Cidades - Ministerio Público solicitará extradición de Nervis Villalobos
El fiscal general designado por la asamblea nacional constituyente, Tarek William Saab, informó este viernes que el Ministerio Público solicitará la extradición de Nervis Villalobos, quien se encuentra en España, por presuntamente estar implicado en legitimación de capitales y hechos internacionales...
09/11/2017 - Cidades - Machado: "Nuevo diálogo fraudulento se traduce en que el régimen se queda"
La coordinadora nacional de Vente Venezuela, María Corina Machado, aseguró este miércoles que los encuentros realizados en República Dominicana entre representantes del gobierno y la Mesa de la Unidad Democrática se basaron en la "permanencia del régimen"....
05/11/2017 - Cidades - Pudim de banana: receita muito fácil de fazer tem gostinho de doce de vó. Saiba preparar
ngredientes:1 xícara de açúcar1/2 xícara de água794 g de leite condensado3 ovos2 xícaras de leite4 bananasCalda de caramelo pronta para decorar...
22/10/2017 - Cidades - Por fin Nacho logra salir de Venezuela y ya se encuentra en Argentina
Por fin Nacho logra salir de Venezuela y ya se encuentra en Argentina...
22/10/2017 - Cidades - Por fin Nacho logra salir de Venezuela y ya se encuentra en Argentina
Por fin Nacho logra salir de Venezuela y ya se encuentra en Argentina...
18/08/2017 - Cidades - Brasil vence Chile
Brasil vence Chile por 3 sets a 0 (25/5, 25/10 e 25/7) e segue invicto! Parabéns!...
15/08/2017 - Cidades - Mascotas caraqueñas
El aumento de los precios de los alimentos concentrados industriales para animales, en el mejor de los casos obligó a los dueños de mascotas a cambiarles la dieta a sus mejores amigos, a fin de garantizarle una alimentación acorde a los requerimientos de perros y gatos....
25/07/2017 - Cidades - Queridos venezolanos
Queridos venezolanos, son días duros, pero decisivos. Hemos llorado, reído... hemos luchado. Confiemos en nuestra fuerza, esta semana será nuestro mayor reto!Maria Corina Machado...
07/07/2017 - Cidades - Temer refuerza solidaridad al pueblo de Venezuela
En encuentro en el Planalto, Temer refuerza solidaridad al pueblo de Venezuela...
19/06/2017 - Cidades - Avianca niega traslado
Avianca niega traslado de cargamento de bombas lacrimógenas a Venezuela ...
19/06/2017 - Cidades - Maduro le puede cortar la luz a la fiscal
Maduro le puede cortar la luz a la fiscal pero jamás le quitará el apoyo popular"...
08/06/2017 - Cidades - Diretas já
05/06/2017 - Cidades - China inaugura maior usina solar
flutuante do mundo, instalada num lago de uma mina de carvão desativada. A usina tem capacidade de 40 MW, energia suficiente para abastecer uma cidade com 15 mil residências. ...
05/06/2017 - Cidades - PF prende Rocha Loures e aumenta a pressão sobre Michel Temer.
PF prende Rocha Loures e aumenta a pressão sobre Michel Temer. ...



Capa |  INTERNACIONAL  |  islam  |  Parana  |  Portugal  |  São Paulo
Busca em

  
26694 Notícias


islam
 

internacional

 

Liberdad ya para nuestro hermano Leonardo Guzmán